Thursday, February 20, 2020

Stories Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Stories - Assignment Example The Lt. carried the guilt and blame because he placed his daydream as an important factor in the story. Pete suggested stories help dampen loneliness. He wrote of â€Å"interviewing† Mt. Hood. In paragraph 5 of page 3, Pete quotes â€Å"Leaves of Grass† by Walt Whitman to explain his sense of stories. Like the Mumford Sons music, poetry and other art forms of storytelling give company and relieve isolation through the understanding of the common experience. Pete’s retelling about the mountain reminded me of â€Å"On a Rainy River†. This story of a physical barrier to freedom, the river between Canada and the U.S. explained O’Brien’s reluctance to turn his back on his own history, his own stories. And, since as Pete reminds, stories are for eternity, when memory is gone. O’Brien did not want to have his story end in shameful cowardice, as he suggested draft dodging would be. O’Brien’s hometown people would not understand such an act. Stories shamed him into staying in the U.S. and being

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Analytical paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Analytical paper - Essay Example ocratic reshaping is proving to be a contradictory, uncertain, and conflict-ridden process, one that has provoked sharp debates both within Bolivia and among observers of Bolivia abroad† (Wolff 3). The problems inside and outside of Bolivia with respect to democratic reforms are certainly not easily definable. Most would also agree a move towards socialism by the current Evo Morales regime is troubling for democratic proponents. Though most would agree that democratic change in Bolivia could be sincerely philanthropic venture by democratic proponents, economic vitalization of Bolivia is usually the anticipated motivation and priority assisting any efforts for ‘changing’ governments, â€Å"†¦creating order is a central task for establishing the foundations of long term economic growth† (North, 1999). It is reasonable then to consider the perceived ‘value’ of Bolivia post-change in light of simple economic potential. The future does not look bright for Bolivian democracy with change as a constant drumbeat from Bolivia’s past. The geography of Bolivia suggests that independence, whether democratic or socialist, is always going to be a matter of dependence upon others. Bolivia is one of two ‘land-locked’ countries in the Western Hemisphere (Paraguay the other) and relies on neighboring countries for exporting its mineral resources (Bolivia’s primary export) throughout the world. This dependence upon neighbors, specifically Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Paraguay, is more significant than some may think. Bolivia once had access to the sea but lost this territory to Chile in the War of the Pacific in the late 1800’s. Bolivia has suffered poverty and government instability ever since the War of the Pacific. Bolivia’s main obstacle to ‘independence’ is Bolivia’s land-locked juxtaposition. The easiest and cheapest route for one of Bolivia’s chief exports, Bolivian crude oil, is directly through Brazil via a pipeline. Brazil also

Monday, January 27, 2020

Mechanisms of the Immune System: An Overview

Mechanisms of the Immune System: An Overview When the human body is attacked by microbes or pathogens, it defends itself using certain mechanisms. There are two types of mechanisms one which is non-specific and the other which is specific to the attack. The non-specific mechanism is similar no matter what attacks the body and is again sub divided into external and internal defences. The first line of defences The bodys first line of defense against pathogens is mostly physical. It involves sweat, skin, tears, mucus and stomach acid. Our skin and mucous membraneswhich line the body passages, are fairly effective in keeping most pathogens out of the body. They act like a protective barrier, defending against viral and bacterial invaders. The skin cannot be penetrated by bacteria or viruses under normal conditions. It has a pH range of 3-5 which is acidic enough to prevent the growth of bacteria. The clotting of blood near open wounds prevents an open space for antigens to easily enter the organism by coagulating the blood, and Lysozymes are an enzyme found in tears and saliva that have powerful digestive capabilities, and can break down foreign agents to a harmless status before they enter the body. Mucus in the nose traps pathogens, which are then washed away or destroyed by chemicals. The respiratory tract also has its own line of defense. Invading microbes and debris are trapped in layers of mucous or they are filtered by tiny hair like structures called cilia. The cilia move in waves, sweeping the debris towards the entrance where they can be extracted through coughing or sneezing, so dont hold your sneezes in!AndCorrosive acids in the stomach and protein digesting enzymes destroy most of the invading organisms carried in by food. The first line makes a very powerful line of defence, but sometimes intruders can find their way past this wall. Thankfully we have a second line on the inside! The second line of defence The second line of defence is immobilized when invaders enter in the body. A nonspecific internal defence mechanism is the process of phagocytosis; the ingestion of invading bacteria by certain blood cells. There are many phagocytic responses used in the body. When foreign particles penetrate the skin; like in cases of injury, certain leukocytes known as monocytes move to the blood tissues where they develop into eaters called macrophages. Using pseudopods, the macrophages engulf and destroy the bacteria with their enzymes. Another phagocytic response: white blood cells. Neutrophils are attracted to chemical signals sent off by cells that have been damaged by microbes. In the process of called chemotaxis, neutrophils move towards infected tissue. The neutrophils then engulf the microbe and release lysosomal enzymes that digest both the microbe and the leukocyte. The remaining fragments of protein, dead white blood and digested remainder are called pus. Tissue damage which is caused by physical damage also initiates an inflammatory response. An inflammatory response is a non-specific immune response which results in swelling, redness, heat and pain. Pus and inflammation are signs that the second line of defence is at work. That is how your body responds to a small localized injury. The body can also respond to severe injuries with a system-wide defence. Injured cells emit chemicals that simulate the production of phagocytic white blood cells and increase their release into the bloodstream. Bone marrow, the source of all blood cells is found in the inner spongy part of the upper leg bone, upper arm bone, breastbone and shoulder blades. A fever is a good example of the bodys system-wide response to infections. When infectious organisms spread through the body like in cold or flu, neutrophils and macrophages digest the invaders and release chemicals into the bloodstream. These chemicals cause your body to reset its thermostat to a higher temperature such as 40 degrees Celsius. These conditions in the body make it difficult for the harmful bacteria to survive; so essentially, the fever helps you recover. People often take medication like aspirin to reduce fever; this however may actually prolong the infection. If the temperature is above 40 degrees Celsius however, it can be unsafe. Keep in mind human cells themselves cannot survive over 43 degrees Celsius. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM The immune system is made up of cells, protein, tissues and organs. It defends us from germs and bacteria every day. The immune system is usually very successful but sometimes when there is a problem we can get infections and illnesses. About the Immune System The immune system is the bodys defense against infectious organisms and other invaders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms that invade body systems and cause disease. The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. The cells involved are white blood cells called leukocytes. Leukocytes are large opaque blood cells that engulf invading microbes and produce antibodies.They combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances. All leukocytes are produced in bone marrow. There are approximately 6,000,000,000 leukocytes in the human body. They are rather colorless because they dont contain hemoglobin which makes red bloodcells red. They have a life expectancy of 2-3 days and therefore the body is constanlty making large amounts of leukocytes all the time. Picture this: there is half a million white blood cells per very drop of blood! Leukocytes are produced or stored in many locations in the body, including the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. This is why they are called the lymphoid organs. Leukocytes are also located in clumps of lymphoid tissue all around the body. They have asymetrical shapes which can change enabling them to get around all obstacles. The leukocytes circulate all around the body between the organs and nodes through the lymphatic vessels and the blood vessels. By doing so, the immune system works in a coordinated way to constantly monitor the body for germs or substances that might cause problems. There are 2 basic types of Leukocytes: They are phagocytes and lymphocytes. Phagocytes are cells that chew up invading organisms and lymphocytes are cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them. There are different types of phagocytes. The most common type is the neutrophil, it primarily fights bacteria. They are the most common type of white blood cell, neutrophils make up 50-70% of white blood cells in the body. They are the first to arrive at infected areasand kill intruders by ingestion. This process is called chemotaxis. Once the pathogen is swallowed the neutrophil dies. The process of neutrophils killing bacteria involves them releasing a net of fibers which traps the cell. This is called neutrophil extracellular trap (N.E.T). Some people have neutrophil difficiencies and as you can imagine it leads to severe problems and a compromised immune system. Other types of phagocytes are besophils, Eosinophils, Monocytes and Macrophages. Besophils are very rare in the body, they make up less than 1% of white blood cells. They d not do much as a result and simply help respond to infections. Eosinophils help ingulf parasites and discharge destructive enzymes to damage invading cells. They also kill parasitic eggs and worms. Monocytes are also very rare in the body, the less monocytes in the body the better. They replenish Macrophages and also help against infection. Finally we have Macrophages. They are cells that eat invaders and are involved in primary and innate immun response. For example they can be found in the lungs where they clean foreign debirs so they do not cause any problems. They usually remain stationed at specific posts in the body where foreign materials often enter. Anything that passes by the macrophages is scanned and if something is suspicious they engluf it. Once englufed the macrophage cereates an enzyme that neutral izes the invader so it becomes harmless and connot replicate and they preserve the antigen so that in the future it can be recognized and dealt with faster. The two kinds of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes start out in the bone marrow and from there they either stay and mature into B cells or they leave for the thymus gland, where they mature into T cells. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes have different functions. B lymphocytes are like the bodys military intelligence system, they seek out their targets and send defenses to lock onto them and track them down. T cells on the other hand are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence systems (B cells) have identified. Antibodies are very specific Y-shaped proteins. For example an antibody produced against the influenza virus is not effective against HIV. These Y-shaped tails of the proteins are very similar, no matter which type of anti-body. Variation may only be produced in the outer edge of each arm, the area where the anti-body combines with the antigen. Antigen markers are different depending on the virus, for example the antigen marker of the influenza virus is different from that of the HIV virus. Each antigen is accompanied by its own antibody, shape wise. The markers of an antigen are located on the membrane of the virus or bacterium. After each attachment of an antibody, the antibody-antigen combination makes it more conspicuous, making it easy to be destroyed by wandering microphage. Antibodies prevent poisons and toxins from destroying cells with receptor sites, found on different cells. This might explain why some poisons affect the nervous system, while others affect digestive or circulatory systems. This receptor site is designed to hold either a hormone or a specific nutrient. Specialized geometrical structures allow toxins and poisons to become attached to the receptor sites on cell membranes. After bring attached, the poison is ingested by the cell, which the receptor site mistakes for hormones or nutrients, absorbing the poison. Antibodies then interfere with the poison so that the structure created is not recognized by the receptor cell. Receptor sites are also used by viruses as entry ports. As the virus injects its hereditary material into the cell, it leaves an outer protein coat in the entry port. The outer coat allows the virus to rest in different locations. For example the cold virus has the geometrical shape to allow it to attach the lung cells. How the Body Recognizes Harmful Antigens As the T-cell scouts, it looks for foreign bodies posing a threat to its survival. The macrophages then attack the invader, engulfing it. As the macrophage presses the antigen into its cell membrane, it couples with the T-cell, also known as a helper T-cell. The T-cell then reads the shape of the antigen and releases a chemical messenger called lymphokine. The B-cells divide into clones because of the lymphokine. A second message is then sent from the helper T-cell to the B-cell, allowing the production of antibodies. A specific type of antibody is produced by each B-cell. Antibodies are attached to their cell membranes by the time the B-cells enter the circulatory system. The Killer T-cell is an activated additional defender if the helper T-cell. These lymphokines go out for one purpose, which is to destroy. After being activated, the killer T-cells puncture through the cell membrane of the invader, which may differ from a protozoan parasite to a bacterium. Viruses are very different from the rest, as they hide within the structure of the cell. As the viral coat is found attached to the cell`s membrane, the T-cell attacks the infected cell. Killing the infected cell prevents the reproduction of the virus. Mutated cells are also destroyed by Killer T-cells. This process is extremely important as some of the altered cells may be cancerous. Getting cancerous virus or not depends on the success of the Killer T-cell. The bodys` rejection of organ transplants depend on Killer T-cells. Antigen markers on the organ will be recognized as foreign, sending the Killer T-cells in. Immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporine can slow down the Killer T cells. After the battle is done, and won, a different type of T-cell, the suppressor T-cell, signals the immune system to shut down. Communication between Suppressor T-cells and Helper T-cells is vital, allowing the immune system to know how many antibodies to produce to contain the antigens. Phagocytes clean the area, removing the dead and injured cells, and tissue begins to repair and replace. As previously mentioned, helper T-cells must read a blue print of the invader before the B-cells can produce antibodies. This information is stored so that later infections can be destroyed before the microbe can cause any harm. Immunity is based on maintaining a good number of antibodies. Its believed that memory-B cells are generated during the infection to hold an imprint of the antigen or antigens that characterize the invader. Most b and t cells produced die off within a few days; but memory B-cells remain. It can identify the enemy and quickly mobilize antibody-producing B-cells to defeat invading pathogens before they can establish themselves. As long as the memory B-cell survives, a person is immune to the disease, which is why a person cannot catch chicken pox more than once. Proteins also play a role in the bodys line of defence. When foreign organisms are present in the body, antimicrobial plasma proteins called complement proteins are activated. There are about 20 known types of complement proteins. Under normal conditions these proteins are inactive. When invading microbes trigger them however they in turn work as messengers. The complement proteins gather and initiate an attack on the cell membranes of the foreign organism. The proteins will then form a protective coating around the invader; this seals the invading cell immobilizing it. A second group punctures the cell membrane, this causes water to rush in and burst the cell. The tiny microbes become less soluble and more susceptible to phagocytes by leukocytes. All of these specialized cells are parts of the immune response system that offer the body protection against disease. This protection is called immunity. The Several Types of Immunity Innate Immunity Innate immunity is often called natural immunity, everyone is born with it, it is a general protection. It refers to basic resistance to germs or diseases that other species possess. For example, if a human has HIV their dog wont get HIV because it has innate immunity to that disease. Innate immunity works in both ways something that makes us sick wont get another species sick and something that gets another species sick wont get us sick. The Responses in innate immunity are Broad and non specific. The molecules used have a limited repertoire of recognition. It is a first line of defense. Innate immunity includes the external barriers of the body, like the skin and mucous membranes, which are the first line of defense in preventing diseases from entering the body. If this outer defensive wall is broken, the skin attempts to heal quickly and the second line of defence becomes involved. Adaptive Immunity The second kind of protection is adaptive/active immunity, it develops throughout our lives. Adaptive immunity involves the lymphocytes and develops as people are exposed to diseases or immunized against diseases through vaccination. With all kinds of diseases constantly exposed we adapt out bodies by taking vaccinations to become immune to them. Passive Immunity Passive immunity isan immunity borrowed externally from another source and it is temporary. For example, antibodies in a mothers breast milk provide the baby with temporary immunity to diseases. This helps protect the baby against infections during childhood when the babys body is still in early stages of development and not very strong. Everyones immune system is different. Some people never seem to get infections,while others seem to be sick all the time. As we grow older, we gradually become more immune to more germs as our immune system comes into contact with more and more of them. Matching tissues for organ transplant The main challenge is the immune response of the recipient- their immune systems ability to distinguish between self and non-self. The donor organ is often identified as an invader by distinct markers on its cell membrane, MHC or Major histocompatibility complex. MHC is a protein fingerprint unique to each person so the recipient will make antibodies to destroy what it thinks is a foreign invader. To reduce rejections, attempts are made to match donor MHC with that of the recipient as closely as possible. For living donor transplants, physicians usually look to close relatives because the MHC is genetically controlled. The better the match, the greater the chances of long term success. To help reduce rejection factor in deceased donor transplants, (because deceased donor transplants cannot usually have as close of an MHC as relatives) immunosuppressant drugs can be given, but it will also reduce the immune systems ability to fight off invading viruses and bacteria; placing these patients at risk of infections. Malfunctions of the immune system: Abnormal functions of the immune system can give rise to two types of problems: immune deficiency diseases and inappropriate attacks of the immune system against nonthreatening agents. Immune deficiency diseases may be caused by a foreign agent, such as the HIV virus which attacks t-cells, or a hereditary condition such as the severe combined immune deficiency SCID. Inappropriate or exaggerated immune response can also create problems. Hypersensitivity or response is where the immune system attacks normal cells in ones own body, which can destroy tissues and organs. Allergies Allergies occur when the immune system mistakes harmless cells for harmful invaders. If youre allergic to peanuts, your body recognizes one of its proteins as dangerous. Although its safe, your body immobilizes the antibody strike force against it. Increased tissue swelling, mucous secretion, and sometimes constricted air passages are all part of the immune response. Dust, ragweed and strawberries, do not pose any threat to life but the immune response can be so severe that it becomes life threatening. A sever food allergy is called an anaphylactic reaction which involves the respiratory and circulatory systems accompanied by hives, itching and swelling. When you eat a food to which youre allergic, the cells that believe they are in danger release histamine. It changes the cells of the capillaries, increasing permeability. The enlarged capillary causes the area to redden. White blood cells leave the capillary in search for the invader altering osmotic pressure. Proteins in extracellu lar fluids create another osmotic force to oppose it. Anaphylactic shock can occur very quickly and weakness, sweating and difficulty breathing indicate the condition. Medial precautions include carrying a kit with adrenaline (Epipen). Autoimmune Disease The immune system can make mistakes and launch an attack on the bodys own cells. Mutated T and B cells are capable of attacking the body but are usually held in check be suppressor T cells. The failure of suppressor T cells can cause diseases such as arthritis and rheumatic fever, all of which can scar the heart muscle. Drugs and serious infections can weaken suppressor T cells leaving the body vulnerable to autoimmune disease. The number of suppressor T cells also declines with age, and this explains the commonness of arthritis in the elderly. Stem cell research: The answer for replacing damaged tissues may lie in stem cell research rather than transplantation. Stem cells can differentiate and develop into a variety of different tissues such as epithelial tissue, muscle tissue or nerve tissue. Stem cells in the skin continuously replace cells that are sloughed off, give rise to a wide range of blood cells that protect against foreign invaders and identify human cells that have mutated, such as cancer cells. Stem cells are pluripotent cells that can give rise to different types of body cells. Precast Concrete: Advantages and Disadvantages Precast Concrete: Advantages and Disadvantages Jump to: Advantages of Precast Concrete Construction  | Disadvantages of Precast Concrete Construction 1.1 Introduction Precast concrete is a form of construction, where concrete is cast in a reusable mould or â€Å"form† which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place. By producing precast concrete in a controlled environment (precast plant), the precast concrete is provides the opportunity to properly cure and be closely monitored by plant employees. There are many different types of precast concrete forming systems for architectural applications, differing in size, function and cost. The advantages of using precast concrete is the increased quality of the material, when formed in controlled conditions, and the reduced cost of constructing large forms used with concrete poured on site. It is used mainly in the construction of buildings with repetitive design and elements, such as schools and apartments. Every construction material system has its own characteristics which influence the layout, span length, construction depth, stability system, etc. This is also the case for precast concrete. Not only in comparison to steel, wood, masonry structures, but also with respect to cast in-situ concrete. Precast concrete members may be solid or may contain hollow cores. Many precast components have thinner cross sections than cast in situ concrete. Precast concrete may be either normal or lightweight concrete. Theoretically, all joints between the precast units could be made in such a way that the completed precast structure has the same concept as a in-situ one. However, this is a wrong approach one, which is very labour intensive costly. If the full advantages of precast concrete are to be realized, the structure should be conceived according to its specific design philosophy: Long spans, appropriate stability concept, simple details,etc. Designers should from the very beginning of the project consider the possibilities, restrictions advantages of precast concrete, its details, manufacturer, transport, erection service stages before completing a design in precast concrete. Architectural precast concrete provides architects with an exciting medium when designing facades for a wide range of buildings, from healthcare facilities to shopping malls, commercial office buildings to sports stadiums. 1.2 History of IBS Concept of IBS in not new and can be traced back to as early 1624. In 1624, panellised timber houses were shipped from England to the new settlement in North America. In 1851 Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London and 1889 Eiffel Tower, Paris are the well-known examples of buildings which uses the method of precast in constructing the structure of the building itself. 1.3 Precast building system Precast building system is divided into 3 main parts: Precast concrete frame Precast concrete wall Precast concrete floor 1.3.1 PRECAST CONCRETE FRAME Description Precast concrete frames involve an entire structure being fabricated off-site. In addition, structural components can be supplied for incorporation into a structure on-site. Frames can simultaneously achieve both structural and decorative design requirements. A variety of mixes, colours and finishes can be used too. The precast frame is composed of precast column and beam. Process Precast concrete frames are cast in the same way as precast concrete cladding, but as they are designed as structural elements they have heavier reinforcement than required for non-structural cladding. Elegant connections are required between columns and beams to transfer considerable forces without affecting the visual appearance of the frame. 1.3.2 PRECAST CONCRETE WALL Description Many precast concrete walls are cast in a flat position at the building site. But they are still classified as precast, not sitecast. When the concrete is strong enough, the wall panels are lifted and placed in the desired positions for the building. This method is commonly known as tilt-up construction. Today such walls are lifted and placed with cranes, so that casting can make repeated use of single forms. Some wall units are cast in factories, where the form, quality of materials, and finishing can be more controlled. Because of their large size and weight, these walls cannot be transported to long distance from the factory. Thus, their use is limited to a short distance from the precast factory. Precast units for roof and floor structures are usually prestressed. However, precast wall units are usually conventionally reinforced with inert steel bars. Precast wall are used for internal external walls, lift shafts, central cores etc. Precast wall systems are mostly used in domestic construction, both for individual housing for apartments. The solution can be considered as the industrialized from of cast in-situ walls or classical brick or block masonry walls. 1.3.3 PRECAST CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB Precast concrete floor slab is the most fully standardized precast concrete elements. They are used for making floor and roof slabs. The principle advantages of precast floors are speed of construction, absence of scaffolding, large variety of types, large span capacity, economy. Precast floors can also be classified according to their manufacture into totally partially precast floors. Totally precast floors are composed of units, which are totally cast at the plant. After erection, the units are connected to the structure the longitudinal joints are grouted.In some cases a cast in-situ structural topping screed is added. Partially precast floors are composed of a precast part a cast in-situ part. Both parts are working together at the final stage to achieve the composite structural capacity. The main totally precast floor roof types are described hereafter. Pre cast hollow core slab Most widely used type of pre cast flooring highly efficient design and production 1.4 Advantages of Precast Concrete Construction Some of the advantages of using precast concrete construction are as follows: 1.4.1 Reduced Construction Time and Cost Precast concrete construction will save valuable time and helps to reduce the risk of project delay and possible monetary losses. Precast design and production of elements can be started while the construction site is under survey or earthworks. Production are also unaffected by weather conditions due to the controlled environment of the casting area. Also, the usage of large precast panels will reduce the time taken to complete the structural works. Therefore, other trades such as painting and electrical wiring can begin work sooner. In conventional construction method, time-consuming works such as formworks, scaffoldings and curing are needed to produce a structural element. In precast concrete construction method, structural elements are produced in manufacturing plants while other activities at the construction site proceed. When the structural elements are needed, they are immediately sent to the site and assembled continuously, forming the structural frame and enclosing the building. In precast concrete manufacturing plants, modern machineries are utilized with several technicians attending to certain production process. This greatly reduced the number of unskilled requirements. 1.4.2 High quality and aesthetical value of products Precast products are manufactured in a casting area where critical factors including temperature, mix design and stripping time can be closely checked and controlled; and this will ensure that the quality of precast products are better than cast-in-situ concrete. A huge sum of money will be saved by not having to do rectification works. Also due to factory-controlled prefabrication environment, many combinations of colours and textures can be applied easily to the architectural or structural pieces. A vast range of sizes and shapes of precast components can be produced, providing a great deal of flexibility and offer fresher looks to the structures. 1.4.3 Cleaner and safer construction sites Usage of precast elements eliminates or greatly reduces conventional formworks and props. Precast construction also lessens the problem of site wastages and the related environmental problems. The prefabricated products also provide a safe working platform for workers to work on. Workers and materials are also greatly reduced at the construction sites. Using Just-in-Time principles, the precast elements are kept at the factory yard until the site is ready for installation. Also, as elements are produced in the plant and mostly designed to be repetitive, minimal wastage will be experienced at both factory and construction sites. 1.4.4 Greater unobstructed span The usage of prestressed precast solutions such as the Hollow Core slabs and Double-T beams offer greater unobstructed span than the conventional reinforced concrete elements. Having lesser beams and columns, will provide larger open space. It is very ideal for the construction of places of worship, warehouses, halls, car parks, shops and offices. 1.4.5 Lower total construction costs All of the above simplify the construction processes and increase productivity, quality and safety. As a result, the total costs of construction are reduced. More often than not, most of the opponents of precast construction only use the costs of materials in comparing the in-situ and precast construction without realising that there are hidden costs to the traditional methods. Also a contributing factor to the low usage is the fact that Malaysia has always been able to source cheap labours from neighbouring countries. Therefore, the industry players are very reluctant to change to the new construction methods. As a result, the country is faced by problems of low quality, productivity and safety in the construction industry due to high dependency of manual labour. The country also suffers from the outflow of monies as well as social problems. If the labour supply experience sudden reduction while demand remains the same, labour costs will definitely be increased and produce more prob lems to the industry. 1.4.6 Increased Quality of Structural Elements Precast concrete elements produced in plants using modern techniques and machineries. Raw materials such as concrete, sand, and reinforcement bars are under high level of quality control. Formworks used are of higher quality than those used at construction sites. This allows truer shapes and better finishes in precast components. Precast components have higher density and better crack control, offering better protection from harsh weathers and sound insulation. High density is achieved by using vibrating table or external vibrators placed on formworks. Precast concrete also provide better fire resistance for reinforcement bars. When compared to in situ concrete, this reduces the amount of long-term movement, which needs to be recognized in building design. 1.4.7 Increased Durability and Load Capacity of Structural Elements Prestressed precast concrete components have high structural strength and rigidity, which are important to support heavy loads. This allows shallow construction depth and long span in structural components. Fewer supporting columns or walls result in larger floor space, which allow more flexibility in interior design. Dense precast and prestressed concrete components are cast-in with smooth steel, concrete or fiberglass. This result in components with smooth surfaces which resist moisture penetration, fungus and corrosion. High density concrete reduces the size and quantity of surface voids thus resisting accumulation of dirt and dust. Precast concrete components are more durable to acid attack, friction, corrosion, impact, abrasion, and other environment effects. Precast concrete structures have longer service years and require minimal repairs and maintenance. 1.5 Disadvantages of Precast Concrete Some of the drawbacks of using precast concrete construction are as follows: 1.5.1 High Capital Cost A large amount of resources must be invested initially to set up a precast concrete plant. Sophisticated machineries are expensive and require heavy investment. Percast concrete is mainly used in construction of high-rise buildings and flats, which are atleast 5 storeys high. Precast concrete is also utilized in construction of housing estates where the design of houses is uniform. Other projects where precast concrete is suitable are large stadiums, halls, factories, awrehouses, airports and hangars. The scale of the construction projects using precast concrete must be large enough to ensure sufficient profit to offset the initial capital cost. 1.5.2 Sophisticated Connection Works The behaviour of connections determines the performance of precast concrete structures. When assembling of precast concrete structures, connections between precast components must be supervised and done properly. This way, the intended behaviour of a connection (simple, semi-rigid, or rigid) can be achieved. Apart from that, a good sound insulation can be provided and water leakage problem can be avoided. Skilled and well-trained labours are required to ensure proper connection is produced during erection stages, which lead to additional cost. 1.5.3 Transportation, Handling Difficulties and Modification Limitation Workers must be careful when handling precast concrete components to avoid damage. Precat components are manufactures in plants, which are not always situated in the area of the construction sites. Precast components must be carried from the plants to the sites using trailers. Usually, precast components are large and heavy, creating difficulties in transportation. Upon arrival at the sites, portable cranes or tower cranes will lift the precast components into place for erection. Usually, to increase the speed of construction, several cranes are used requiring large space. Proper construction planning and site management is a must. Workers be well trained to ensure that precast components are positioned and connected properly to avoid cases where the columns, beams, walls, or slabs are not well aligned, dislocated or out of plane. Precast concrete system is not flexible when future modification is taken into account. For example, the walls of a flat built using load bearing precast w alls cannot be demolished for renovation purposes, as this will affect the stability of the entire precast structure. 1.6 Precast Concrete Construction in Malaysia The usage of precast building system is gaining popularity in Malaysia because of its many advantages such as high quality structural finishes, less labour force, shorter time of completion and saves cost. In the construction industry today, the usage of cast in-situ method is not so practical and effective especially when it is in a large scale construction. Therefore, the usage of precast components is the best alternative to fulfill the needs in large scale constructions. The precast concrete concept is ideal to suit the future demands of higher specifications and performance for the commercial, industrial, civic and domestic buildings. Precast building system or commonly known as IBS (Industrialized Building Systems) in Malaysia has many advantages if it is compared to the traditional cast in situ system. Production of precast components such as beams, columns and slabs were done in the factory thus ensuring high quality control for each component. Structures of precast building can be quickly erected on site and the delays due to concrete curing and concrete formwork removal can be reduced resulting in shorter completion time of construction. Besides that, precast system requires lesser amount of labour force. 1.6.1 Development of IBS in Malaysia IBS in Malaysia has begun in early 1960s when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European countries to learn about precast concrete construction and evaluate their housing development program. After their successful visit in 1964, the government had started first project on IBS aims to speed up the delivery time and built affordable and quality houses. Precast concrete construction started in Malaysia with the production of 7 blocks of 17-storey flat, 4 blocks of 4-storey flat and 40 units of shop house opposite the Kuala Lumpur General Hospital at the intersection of Jalan Pekeliling and Jalan Pahang. This project used the Larsen-Nielson system from Denmark. The second construction project, which used precast concrete, was the construction of 6 blocks of 17-storey flat, 3 blocks of 18-storey flat and 66 units of shop house along Jalan Rifle, Penang. This project used the Frenchs Estior system. Since then, numerous precast structures such as high-ris es, car parks, warehouses, factories, housings and retail units have been built all over the country. Some latest examples are the Telekom Headquarter in KL, townhouses in Cyberjaya, City Square in Johor Bahru, Putra Mosque in Putrajaya and Metal Pak Factory in Shah Alam. Today, the use of IBS as a method of construction in Malaysia is evolving. Many private companies in Malaysia have teamed up with foreign expert from Australia, United States and Japan to offer precast solution to their project. In addition, more and more local manufacturers have established themselves in the market. Precast, steel frame and other IBS were used as hybrid construction to build national landmark such as Bukit Jalil Sport Complex, LRT and Petronas Twin Tower. It was reported that at least 21 of various manufacturers and suppliers of IBS are actively promoting their system in Malaysia. Nevertheless, the government of Malaysia still feels that the usage of IBS is low despite the possible potential. From the survey conducted by CIDB of Malaysia in 2003, the usage level of IBS in local construction industry stands at 15%. The total registered IBS contractors in Malaysia stand for 1,993 in year 2007 and registered IBS manufacture in Malaysia until 2007 is 138 producing 347 IBS products available in the market. Most of the local developed products are based on traditional materials such as reinforced concrete and the most innovative materials are based on imported technology. Previously in the RMK-7, the country intend to construct about 800,000 units of houses for its population using the IBS and 58,500 units planned for the low medium cost houses. However the achievements are disappointing with only 20% completed houses reported due to use of conventional construction method. 1.6.2 IBS as Mass Construction Method The term IBS is often misinterpreted with negative meaning as it is always linked with industrialized buildings that were built in 1960s. These buildings are normally associated with prefabricated mass construction method, low quality buildings, leakages, abandoned projects, unpleasant architectural appearances and other drawbacks. Due to the poor architectural design, the old prefabriacted buildings have given the pbulic bad impression about precast concrete. There have been quiet a number of cases where the use of IBS had lead to such drawbacks. For example, in the case of Pekeliling Flats in Kuala Lumpur and Taman Tun Sardon, Gelugor, Penang. These 2 early prefabricated flats were constructed in mass to produce low cost accomodation for lower income groups. However, the design was very basic and not considering the service aspects like the need for wet toilets and bathrooms. Lacking in this design consideration leads to problems of leakage that becomes the common issue with precast buildings. In addition, in many cases the low cost housings are not maintained properly, thus contributing further to the poor image of IBS buildings. 1.6.3 Characteristics of IBS Industrial production of components though prefabrication. Reduced labour during prefabrication of components and site works. Modern design and manufacturing method using CAD/CAM. Systematic Quality Control i.e ISO 9000. Open Building System i.e permitting hybrid applications. 1.6.4 Why IBS Budget Speech 2005: The Government is determined to ensure that every Malaysian will have access to affordable homes. During the period 1971-2003, the Government constructed 490,000 units of low-cost houses. The government intends to provide an additional 100,000 units of affordable homes to be implemented through the Industrialised Building System (IBS).This system will ensure quality, save cost, create a safer and cleaner working environment as well as reduce the dependence of foreign workers 1.6.5 Social Problems Currently 75 foreign workers out of 100 construction workers. There are 318,000 foreign workers in Malaysian Construction Industry Let say one foreign worker gain RM400 per month; RM400.00 x 12 months = RM5,000 per year, 318,000 x RM5,000 = RM 1.59 Billion per year It shows the High outflow of Ringgit 1.6.6 Types of IBS The construction method can be classified into 4 categories:

Sunday, January 19, 2020

The 21st Century School Librarian Essay -- Educational Issues

The 21st Century school librarian is no longer just the caretaker of the book collection. Technology is transforming the education system and the way children are taught. This paper discusses the many roles and issues that the teacher-librarian plays in creating a flexible 21st Century learning environment. 21ST Century School Library Media Specialist The roles discussed in the articles written by school librarians Mashriqi (2011), Ballard (2008), and Marcoux (2010) were similar in strategies needed for running an effective media center today. The common theme was the importance in being able to evaluate what will help the school meet the needs of todays learners and to connect the curriculum with â€Å"hands-on† learning experiences. By demonstrating knowledge and current technological skills the media specialist connects the library with teachers, students, administration and parents with information and resources to promote literacy. Technology integration is accomplished by using resources that reflect content standards. To focus on the relationship between education technology and student learning engaging games is one way to achieve the goals with positive results. Digital Tools Todays’ school library media specialist applies trends related to the use of technology in education to support integration throughout the curriculum. Being literate in the 21st Century involves teaching both â€Å"traditional† literacy and how to read and produce the kinds of texts typical of the emerging information and multimedia age. Benthem (2010) points out that to have an effective school library program it needs to be an ongoing work in progress. Literacy development does impact student learning through the use of digital technologies, includ... ...upport emergent literacy skill development for young children at-risk or who have disabilities. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(3), 233-239. Peterson, J. (2011). Finding focus: Using digital cameras in library programming. Children & Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children, 9(3), 48-51. Poinier, S., & Alevy, J. (2010). Our instruction does matter! Data collected from students' works cited speaks volumes. Teacher Librarian, 37(3), 38-39. Sugar, W., & Holloman, H. (2009). Technology leaders wanted: Acknowledging the leadership role of a technology coordinator. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 53(6), 66-75. Zabel, D., & Hickey, D. (2011). The reuse evangelist: Taking ownership of copyright questions at your library. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 51(1), 9-11.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Manganese Ore Beneficiation Production Line

Manganese ore crushing processChunks of manganese ore by silo are evenly sent to first crushing (jaw crusher) for primary crushing by the vibrating feeder, manganese ore coarse crushing by belt conveyor to the secondary crushing (Impact crusher or conecrusher) for further crushing;Manganese ore after crushing is sent into vibrating screen for sieving by belt conveyor, screening out of several different sizes, different specifications of manganese ore, manganese ore to meet the size requirements is sent to the heap of finished material by the finished product belt conveyor;manganese ore without meeting the size requirements is sent back material impact crusher or cone crusher broken again by the belt conveyor forming a closed-circuit and cycling repeatedly. http://www. shzbm. com rotary kiln http://www. pe750. com aw crusherThe product granularity can be combined and graded according to the needs of users, manganese ore processing can be equipped with auxiliary dust removal equipment for the protection of the environment. Manganese is relatively rich resources of lean ore,Disseminated to a large number of high phosphate, high iron ore and beneficial symbiotic metal in manganese ore, causing great difficulties to the beneficiation process. Manganese iron ore beneficiation methods to take ore washing and screening, magnetic separation, gravity separation and flotation, and fire for enrichment, chemical processing method and other methods to complete the beneficiation process. Manganese iron ore beneficiation methods and equipments 1.Washing and screening process: Ore washing process Commonly use these equipments :ore washing sieve ,cylinder ore washing machine and trough washing machine, spiral sand washing machine;Washing mine operation and screening is generally carried out at the same time. 2. Gravity separation process: This process is used for manganese ore sorting with simple structure, disseminated coarser, such as density of oxide ore;The processes used co mmonly have heavy media beneficiation,jigging beneficiation and shaking table beneficiation; 3. Magnetic separation process: High intensity magnetic separation process use magnetic separator to have magnetic separation operation to manganese ore powder,It has several features simple operation, easy to control, strong adaptation. 4.The heavy magnetic separation process: The heavy magnetic separation process has magnetic separation operation to magnetic separator manganese ore powder again,by using a strong magnetic separator. 5. Flotation :Flotation equipment mainly uses the chf inflatable flotation device;good performance, efficiency has been greatly enhanced,it is very suitable for manganese beneficiation process. 6. Pyrometallurgical enrichment process(also known as manganese-rich slag) Pyrometallurgical enrichment method is simple, stable production, effective separation of the ore, iron, phosphorus, and get rich manganese, low iron, low phosphorus manganese-rich slag, this manga nese-rich slag is a high quality manganese alloy materials.For more details on the production equipment of manganese ore, manganese ore stone crushing equipment, manganese ore grinding equipment information, please contact us and leave your contact information, our sales staff or engineers will get in touch with you as soon as possible. If the manganese ore crusher or manganese ore mill produced by us can not meet your needs, We will customize the manganese ore production line that fit you according to your feeding, discharging, yield, hardness and specific material properties Please believe, Shanghai Zhongbo will bring you satisfactory products and good service. http://www. pe600. com ball mill http://www. mining-ss. com rotary kiln http://www. machine-ss. com ball mill manufacture

Friday, January 3, 2020

The American ( Food ) Revolution - 1270 Words

Jaehun Lee 10/8/15 Summer Reading Essay The American (Food) Revolution Medical Experts are divided on whether or not the government should increase regulation on fast and processed foods. Remember those days when Thanksgiving dinners were a family affair? When the whole family went to the supermarket and bought turkey, ham, potatoes, and all of the raw ingredients needed to make every dish? When the whole family worked together to make a Thanksgiving meal to be shared by everyone? Today, this is becoming less of the trend. But the reason most definitely is not because Americans are not celebrating Thanksgiving; rather, it is because buying pre-made meals from chains has become the trend, which essentially eliminates the family aspect of Thanksgiving. We buy everything pre-made: the Boston Market’s Thanksgiving platter, Star Market’s pre-cooked and carved turkey and ham, frozen stuffing at Shaw’s, etc. Today, many families have chosen the path of convenience when it comes to eating, which is evident when the Boston Market reports that its â€Å"Heat and Serve† Thanksgiving platters’ sales have gone up 20% in sales from 2011 to 2012. T his preference for convenience when it comes to eating is also evident with today’s thriving fast food industry. Every day, about 25% of the American population eats some sort of fast food, says Eric Schlosser in a CBS news interview. Annette Clausen of the Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service found that Americans spend 10% of theirShow MoreRelatedEssay about The American Revolution and the Institution of Slavery580 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction The American Revolution is defined as the political turbulence that took place towards the end of eighteenth century when thirteen colonies in America united to attain freedom from the British Empire (Clifford, 2005). The union of the thirteen colonies is now known as the United States of America. According to Clifford (2005), the American Revolution occurred because of a series of political, intellectual, and social transformations in the American government and society, which isRead MoreThe Major Causes Of The French Revolution798 Words   |  4 PagesThe French Revolution paved the way for liberty and equality for the country of France. In order for this to happen, France had to eliminate some major obstacles including King Louis XVI. 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This war had many causes that began the revolution. Its causes ranged from the American Revolution, the economic crisis in France, social injustices to the immediate causes like the fall of Bastille, the Convening of he Estate-General, and the Great Fear. As a result of this revolution there many effects , immediate and long term. The immediate effects were the declaration of rights of man, abolishing of olds reign, execution of kingRead MoreThe French Revolution Essay590 Wo rds   |  3 PagesThe French Revolution The French Revolution last from 1789 to 1799. This war had many causes that began the revolution. Its causes ranged from the American Revolution, the economic crisis in France, social injustices to the immediate causes like the fall of Bastille, the Convening of he Estate-General, and the Great Fear. As a result of this revolution there many effects , immediate and long term. The immediate effects were the declaration of rights of man, abolishing of olds reign, executionRead MoreThe Real Cause of the French Revolution Essay1710 Words   |  7 PagesThe Real Cause of the French Revolution For hundreds of years historians have tried to find out the real cause of the French Revolution, and they have come up with hundreds of varieties different reasons as well. Spread over the ten-year period from 1789-1799, the French Revolution was initiated by disagreements over the peoples ideas of reform. Seeking equality, libertyRead MoreEssay about The Industrial Revolution in America1118 Words   |  5 Pagessince its birth out of Great Britain. The Industrial Revolution has been an influence in the American life since it first began in the 1700s. Many of the effects resulting from the revolution still affect America to this day. The entrepreneurs of this time and their industry still are around, although they have molded and shaped themselves into better products their still known from the originality of it all. Although the Industrial Revolution began hundreds of years ago it has affected everything

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Personal Respone on Understanding Fear - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1686 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/05/15 Category Sociology Essay Level High school Tags: Sociological Imagination Essay Did you like this example? Â  An individual of society may go through a lot of changes and experiences during their lifetimes. From the moment the person is born, society ends up playing a huge role on shaping their social interactions, their behaviors, their morals and the things that end up driving their decisions; whether it is love, education, success, wealth, happiness, or fear, among others. Moreover, although individuals experience different situations based on their social class, status, gender, ethnicity and race, there are emotions and feelings that seem to be universal, and that they are able to connect humans on another level through them, such as fear. Further on, the article that will be analyzed is about the long-standing fear of a young woman that had a traumatic adolescence due to her sexual abuse and the indifference of his own father. This writing also gets to explain in detail the roots of that fear, the context of her fear, and the understanding of her fear through various sociological perspectives and lenses, that in the process gives her a comprehension of it to make her finally heal. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Personal Respone on Understanding Fear" essay for you Create order To start, the writers purpose is accentuated since the beginning. She finds that laying out her reasons for her fear, and explaining it in various perspectives will help alleviate her pain. She was raped, unemotionally connected with her father and suffered from severe mental illness. But she wanted to know why years later in situations like choosing a university or committing to a relationship or any other small decision, there was always something preventing her from succeeding. Moreover, that is why she chose to write about it, so she can find out the why, the what, the when and the how of why she is like she is, and how to overcome her fearfulness mind, so she can continue on with her life. Virginia Wolf, once quoted: It is only by putting into words that I make it whole; the wholeness means that it has lost the power to hurt me and in the same way she wanted the hurting to stop through words, she also wanted it to transmit that to other people that might remotely feel the same w ay. Following this further, the article poses various questions that are answered through different sociological views, in both the macro and micro level. She questions why fear is a result of socialization, why is it expected as a woman, why is it interfering with her rational life choices, why is it showing in her behavior and why it is a public issue. Her point of view focusing firstly on her as an individual that is part of society, and then expanding it to the whole spectrum of society, using the symbolic interaction, functionalism and conflict theory approach, to evaluate her fear in diverse manners. The author starts by explaining fear as a result of socialization, given the experiences shes had to go through since she was very young. The primary socialization was the lack of affection by her alcoholic father, and the overall relationship her parents had that contributed to her growing up with instability and anxiety as her norm. And her second, but most impactful socialization was when she was abused at 14 and suffered in silence for a very long time in fear of the man and his possible retaliation. Altogether, instilling in her a sense of always being intimidated by something, or someone, especially the opposite sex, and constructing a social reality in which fear guides her every move, which can be called Constructivism. Constructivism is an extension of the symbolic interaction perspective, which suggests that a persons reality is developed through the interaction with others, and what humans cognitively construct it to be (Lumen). Which would explain why her views of what su rrounds her is rooted in being intimated and fearful, because thats what shaped her in a critical age in which an individual starts to build their reality. This can be exemplified by her behavior towards relationships and her lack of trust to male suitors. She firstly saw this when the relationship of her parents were affected by her fathers alcoholism, and how her mother was full of anxiety because of it. In the same way, as she grew up with a bad fatherly figure, she had no sense of what a good man should be like and it only got worse when she was also sexually abused by one. And so, the symbol of men becoming a source of anxiety in the authors reality in the process. Moreover, since a young age, women are taught to always be cautious of their surroundings, to never walk alone at night, to never talk to or receive drinks from strangers, to dress a certain way to not get assaulted, and so their realities are rooted and constructed in fear. Furthermore, the combination of the perceived fear as part of her reality, and the internalization of women always needing to be cautious as part of society is what pushes her away from something as positive as love, because she is afraid of going through her bad experiences again with the men in her life. On the other hand, as she started to understand more the where, the why, the what of her fear, she also started to understand that fear is widespread, and many individuals in a society can feel it, not only by been abused, but by million other reasons. Throughout history, fear of the other has been instilled in certain groups and has resulted in xenophobia and genocide, and in the last 20 years it has also been seen by the threat of terrorism. A huge example being 9/11 and how it forever changed the socializations of daily Americans. The writer also denotes how the news network can make people afraid of their neighbor, their partners, or even their family, overall showing the lack of trust and instilment of fear as a public issue in both the US and the world. Pursuing this further, the functionalism perspective shows that fear can also be imposed by not only events, but by politicians/elite groups through manipulating of people so they could be afraid of certain group of individuals. Resulting as a consequence, a fear of the outsider and so a lack of integration between the functions in a society. This can be seen with the clashing ideologies, cultural systems and political parties. As far as another macro-sociological perspective that goes along with the line of reasoning is the conflict theory. She proposes that fear is inherent of capitalist societies, one of the reasons being that is an economic system that only a few benefit, and one must always one and must also lose, since is based largely on competition. And so companies or entrepreneurs are constantly on tension and afraid whos going to be one that will be succeeding. At the same time, since capitalism entitles economic inequality, theres always someone that will be worse off, so others can be better off, and the fear of not having economic security can be excruciating to many. Overall, as far as what was mentioned before and my perspective, I have learned about fear in different ways that I have not thought of. Yes, I have thought a lot before about not only the small things, such as being scared of an insect or the deep ocean, but also being scared of not finding a good job or having financial security, and in the worst cases to be sexually assaulted sometime in my life. But the article broadened my horizons in how much fear can be instilled in someones life and how it can be so widespread that it affects a lot of decisions in peoples lives. It also made me think that after all fear might be one of the things that people think and feel the most; the fear of going to war, the fear of being discriminated against, the fear of terrorism, the fear of losing a job, the fear of not doing good in college, the fear of being molested, among million other things people can think of throughout their lifetimes. This has also worked to give me an insight that my fear to a certain situation can also make me think that Im not alone in feeling this way, and just by the fact that so many people share this me, makes me feel I can count on people, I can lean on people and I can connect with them. And at the end of the day, that link you have with people makes you feel less afraid, and more capable of overcoming it. And yes after reading this article, I learned that I can relate on certain things with her. My fears have prevented me from forming new relationships given my trust issues they have also given me so much anxiety that at times it becomes irrational when thinking about my future, and my fears do clash with the person Im trying to be and others expect of me. But at the end, fear and unrest can lead to a change in me to become better, and thats a very important thing to have. In conclusion, the article tackles many important sociological points at the micro and macro level that have served the writer not only to alleviate her pains and fear, but to communicate it to whoever is also feeling the same. She got to do it by explaining her own fear to understand it better herself, so later she could apply it to many events in a persons life to accentuate the fact fear can unite people for the best. Because, although history has shown fear has led to discrimination, genocide, culture clashes, fear has also led for people to resist against it and to lead a change instead. Moreover, in my perspective, this article did serve its purpose and on the way it helped me reflect on my own fears, and how they can become my weapon, instead of my weakness. Bibliography Lumen. Reading: Symbolic Interactionist Theory. ND. Courses Lumen Learning. 14 July 2018.